added value
The value that an enterprise adds to the purchased raw and auxiliary materials. This corresponds with the value of what the enterprise produces itself.

competitive position
The ability to produce better and/or at lower cost than competitors.

Economic and Monetary Union (EMU)
The EMU is intended to organise a monetary union in the European Union. The introduction of the euro is an element of this. In 1999 the EMU was realised.

European Union (EU)
Interest grouping in the area of economics of 28 countries (in 2013). Central feature: free movement of persons, goods, services and capital.

The group of countries in which the euro is the currency.

exchange rate
The exchange rate is the price of a currency expressed in another currency. For example: in 2012 the exchange rate of the euro fluctuated around €1 = $1.30.

The selling of goods and services to other countries.

foreign exchange or foreign currency
Foreign currencies and international means of payment.

The buying of goods and services abroad.

international division of labour
The phenomenon that (enterprises of) countries focus on producing goods and services that they are relatively good at or where the conditions for producing are favourable.

labour productivity
The production per person per time unit (for instance per hour or per working year).

Goods that are imported into the Nether¬lands and are then exported again to a third country.

wage costs per product
The total wage costs divided by the total number of products.